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Ooaj Travel Guide, tourism, hotel reservation, residence, plane, cheap pension for you holidays in egypt

Free Travel guide A free travel guide for holidays. Hotels in egypt, Bed and Breakfast!

Quick Facts
CurrencyEgyptian pound (EGP) (LE / £E)
Areatotal: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km
Population77,505,756 (2005)
LanguageArabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
ReligionMuslim (mostly Sunni) 94%, Coptic Christian and other 6%
Country calling code20
Time ZoneUTC +2

Egypt is a country located in north-eastern Africa. Bordered by the Merranean and Red Seas (to the north and east respectively) and geographically dominated by the mighty Nile river and its valley, Egypt (together with its southern neighbour Sudan) is best known as the home of the ancient Egyptian civilization, with its temples, hieroglyphs, mummies, and - visible above all - its pyramids. Egypt stimulates the imagination of western tourists like few other countries and is probably one of the most popular tourist destinations world-wide.

egypt Travel Guide :



Egypt can be divided into a number of convenient regions for the traveler:

  • Cairo - the capital of Egypt and its surroundings, including Giza, Memphis, Saqqara, Abusir and Dahshur.
  • Alexandria, Egypt's city by the Merranean Sea
  • the Delta region, where the Nile meets the Merranean, the extreme north of the country
  • Middle Egypt
  • Luxor - amazing temples and the Valley of the Kings
  • Upper Egypt, a string of amazing temple towns located on the Nile between Luxor and Aswan
  • Aswan - the relaxed alternative to Cairo and Luxor
  • Lake NasserLake Nasser and Abu Simbel - two great monuments, one modern, one ancient
  • the Western Oases - five pockets of green in the midst of the Western Desert, each with their own unique attractions
  • the Red Sea Coast - luxury beach resorts, diving and marine life
  • the Sinai Peninsula - rugged and isolated, with fascinating relics of the past


Map of EgyptMap of Egypt
Map of Egypt

Other destinations



The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C. and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest by Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty following World War II. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile river in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to ready the economy for the new millennium through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.



Egypt is largely desert, an extension of the great Sahara Desert that bands North Africa. But for the thin strip of watered land bordering the river Nile, very little could survive here As the ancient Greek historian stated: "Egypt is the gift of the Nile".

Generally, dry and very hot summers with moderate winters - November through to January are definitely the most comfortable months for travel in Egypt. There is almost no rain in the Nile valley, so you won't be needing wet weather gear! Do bring sunscreen, sunglasses and a sturdy hat however.



Banks, shops and businesses will close for the following Egyptian National Holidays (civil, secular). Public transport may run only limited services:

  • 1st January (New Year's Day)
  • 25th April (Liberation Day)
  • 1st May (Labour Day)
  • 23rd July (Revolution Day)
  • 6th October (Armed Forces Day)
  • 23rd October (Suez Day)
  • 23rd December (Victory Day)

Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar and the most important holiday for Muslims, the majority religion in Egypt. Commemorating the time when God revealed the Qur'an to Mohammed, during this holy month, Muslims abstain from eating, drinking or smoking until after sundown on each day. Although strict adherence to Ramadan is for Muslims only, some Muslims would appreciate that non-Muslims do not take meals or smoke in public places. During Ramadan, many restaurants and cafes won't open until after sundown. Public transport is infrequent, shops close earlier and the pace of life is generally slow.



Vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta.

Land use 
arable land: 2.85%
permanent crops: 0.47%
other: 96.68% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land 
33,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards 
periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods, landslides; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms
Environment - current issues 
agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources
Environment - international agreements 
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note 
controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Merranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees

Get in


Visas and Documentation

There are three types of Egyptian visa:

  • Tourist Visa - usually valid for a period not exceeding 3 months and granted on either a single or multiple entry basis
  • Entry Visa - required for any foreigner arriving in Egypt for purposes other than tourism, e.g. work, study, etc. The possession of a valid Entry Visa is needed to complete the residence procedure in Egypt.
  • Transit Visa

Non-Egyptian travellers are required to be in possession of a valid passport.

Entry visas may be obtained from Egyptian Diplomatic and Consular Missions Abroad or from the Entry Visa Department at the Travel Documents, Immigration and Nationality Administration (TDINA). It is, however, possible for most tourists and visitors to obtain an entry visa at any of the Major Ports of Entry. (Please check with your nearest Egyptian Consular mission for more details concerning visa regulations applying to your citizenship).

Citizens of the following countries are currently required to be in possession of a pre-arrival visa:

Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Chechnya, Croatia, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Lebanon, Macau, Macedonia, Malaysia, Moldavia, Montenegro, Morocco, Pakistan, Palestine, the Philippines, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Sri-Lanka, Tadzhikistan, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and all African countries.

Residents of the countries above may apply for a visa through their nearest Egyptian Consulate or Embassy.

Visitors entering Egypt at the overland border post of Taba to visit Gulf of Aqaba coast and St Catherine can be exempted from visa and granted a free residence permit for fourteen days to visit the area.

Those in possession of a residence permit in Egypt are not required to obtain an entry visa if they leave the country and return to it within the validity of their residence permit or within six months, whichever period is less.


By plane

Egypt has several international airports:

  • Cairo International Airport (2 terminals)
  • Alexandria Nozha
  • Luxor International Airport
  • Aswan International Airport
  • Hurghada International Airport
  • Sharm El-Sheikh International Airport

Cairo International Airport CAI 1 ( forms the primary entry point and the hub of the national carrier, Egyptair. An increasing number of international scheduled flights are being sent direct to Luxor, however, in addition to the large number of charter flights that already run there.

A number of charter airlines also fly direct to Red Sea resort towns and locations like Hurghada and Sharm el-Sheikh


By car


By bus

Egypt can be accessed by bus from a number of neighbouring countries, such as Israel (from the bus stations in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv) and Jordan.


By boat

A car runs between Aqaba in Jordan and Nuweiba in the Sinai, tickets $50. A weekly ferry also runs between Wadi Halfa in Sudan, and Aswan in Egypt.


Get around


By train

The trains in Egypt are all run by Egyptian National Railways, a state-owned and -run company (no website available as yet).

Train tickets can be bought at most major railway stations' booking offices once you are in Egypt, (although, as this is Egypt, a great deal of patience is often required...)

Ramses Sattion in Cairo has several booking windows, for example, one for each class and group of destinations, so be sure to check with locals (usually very helpful) that you are joining the right queue. Train tickets can be paid for in Egyptian currency, except for the deluxe Abela Egypt sleeper which must be paid in foreign currency (dollars, euros or pounds sterling). An alternative to self-booking, if you don't mind paying a little commission to avoid the inevitable hassle and frustration, is to a local travel agent to buy tickets on your behalf (preferably at least the day before you intend to travel).

Busy holiday periods excepted, it's not normally difficult to get 1st class tickets on the day of travel or the day before. To avoid complications, however, book as far ahead as possible.

Always go for First Class tickets (ridiculously cheap in any case) - travellers probably won't want to experience anything below Second Class (the condition and provision of toilets, for example, drops away quickly after this level). If you must travel at a lower class than desirable, look for the first opportunity to "upgrade" yourself into an empty seat - you may pay a small supplement when your ticket is checked, but it's worth it. Seat 61


By taxi

In the cities taxis are a very safe, cheap and convenient way of getting around. It has to be noted that while they are mostly safe there are sometimes fake taxis going around so make sure they have official markings on the dashboard or elsewhere. They are also always painted in special colors, in Cairo they are black and white and in Luxor they are blue and white. In Cairo and Luxor it is often much more interesting to use the taxis and a good guidebook instead of traveling around in a tour bus.

All the taxis have meters but they are calibrated using a law from the 1970s before the oil crisis and are never used. Instead you have to tell the driver where to go and not mention a price. At the end of the journey you step out of the car and make sure you have everything with you and then hand out reasonable money. If the driver shouts, it's probably OK, but if he steps out of the car you almost certainly paid too little. The definition of reasonable seems to be variable but examples are 30 LE from central Cairo to Giza, 10 LE for a trip inside central Cairo and 5 LE for a short hop inside the city. Do not be tempted to give them too much except for exceptional service, otherwise ripping off foreigners will become more common and such practice generally tends to add to the inflation.

Taxis can also be hired for whole days for between 100-200 LE if going on longer excursions, for example to Saqqara and Dashur from Cairo. Inside the town they are also more than happy to wait for you (often for a small extra charge but normally they say it's free), even if you will be wandering around for a few hours.

English is often spoken by taxi drivers and they will double as guides, announcing important places when you drive by them. Of course they expect to be paid a little extra for that. This is not always the case and if you get your hands on a good english speaking driver it is wise to ask him for a card or a phone number, they can often be available at any time.


By plane

The domestic air network is fairly extensive and covers most major towns in Egypt. The national carrier, EgyptAir has the most regular services and is the easiest place to start looking before you go. From Cairo there are services to quite a few towns and places of interest around the country, the most important are the following:

There are other places but these are the most common. Due to a two-tier pricing structure fares can be more than four times more expensive for foreigners than locals but still relatively cheap, for example a return day trip to Luxor is about $150. It is wise to book early, flights fill up quickly in the peak season. Local travel agencies have internet web pages and can sometimes squeeze you in last minute but booking in advance is recommended.



The official language of Egypt is the Egyptian dialect of Modern Arabic. Egyptian Arabic differs in that the letter jim is pronounced g instead of j. Few travellers will have difficulty finding someone with whom to communicate. English is widely spoken, especially in tourist centres, followed by such other languages as French, German, Spanish, Italian and Japanese. The pressure to cater for tourists has driven language acquisition in all the main cities and tourist areas - you will find many Egyptians keen to practice their English with you! Make an effort to share some new words or gentle corrections, and be a good ambassador for the West.

Following usual rules of politeness, instead of simply starting a conversation with someone in English, ask "Do you speak English?". All the more better if you can do it in Arabic.





The local currency is the Egyptian Pound (EGP), often written as LE. In Arabic it's called "gnieh" (????).

As of January 2006:

  • $1 US Dollar = LE 5.75, LE 1 = $0.17
  • £1 Pound Sterling = LE 10.15, LE 1 = £0.10
  • €1 Euro = LE 6.95; LE 1 = €0.14
  • $1 Australian = LE 4.32, LE 1 = AUD$0.23
  • $1 Canadian = LE 4.92; LE 1 = CAD$0.20


Egypt is a shopper's paradise - especially if you're interested in Egyptian-themed souvenirs and kitsch, of course. That said, a number of high quality goods are to be had, often at bargain prices. Some of the most popular purchases include:

  • Antiques (NB: not antiquities, the trade of which is rightly illegal in Egypt)
  • Carpets and rugs
  • Cotton goods and clothing
  • Inlaid goods, such as backgammon boards
  • Jewellery
  • Leather goods
  • Music
  • Papyrus
  • Perfume
  • Sheeshas (water-pipes)
  • Spices - can be bought at colourful stalls in most Egyptian markets. Dried herbs and spices are generally of a higher quality than that available in Western supermarkets and are, of course, much, much cheaper (up to 4 or 5 times cheaper, though the final price will depend of bargaining and local conditions).


Egypt can be a fantastic place to sample a unique range of food: not too spicy and well-flavoured with herbs. For a convenient selection of Egyptian cuisine and staple foods try the Felfela chain of restaurants in Cairo. Some visitors complain, however, that these have become almost too tourist-friendly and have abandoned some elements of authenticity.

One contributor recalls: "The best meal I ever had in Egypt was in the backstreets of Hurghada, a fish shop near the port which also cooked the catch. I went with wife and kids and just said make us happy. We were, the freshest fish, old benches to sit on with a communal table and company who were more interested in us and the kids than their meals, but a meal we still remember!"



Bottled water is available everywhere, the most common brand being Baraka - drink plenty of water to avoid dehydration in Egypt's dry climate.

Egypt is a predominately Muslim nation and alcoholic drinks are, of course, forbidden (haram) for strictly observant Muslims. That said, Egyptians tend to adopt a relaxed and pragmatic view towards alcohol for non-Muslims and foreigners L it is tolerated by the vast majority of Egyptians and consumed by a sizable number of them (including less strict Muslims - you may even be asked to "procure" drink for someone!) Alcoholic beverages and bottled drinks are readily available throughout the country (especially in larger towns and cities, as well as tourist centres). Please note, however, that public drunkeness (especially the loud and obnoxious variety) is definitely not appreciated - without caution, you may end up drying out in a police cell. Try to be a good ambassador: if you must get "tipsy", confine it to the hotel or very nearby! (It's actually quite rare to see drunken tourists, even in the most intense tourist areas...)

Stella Beer, it's great! Ptolemy Wine - don't! (Seriously, Egyptian wines don't compare to vintages elsewhere - you may develop a taste for it though!)

It should be noted that many hotels and bars in Egypt will stop serving alcohol during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan - phone ahead to make sure alcohol is still being served in order to avoid disappointment.






American University in Cairo

The American University in Cairo 2 ( (AUC), one of the best universities in the Middle East, offers degree, non-degree and summer-school study options. Popular courses include Arabic Language and Literature, Islamic Art and Architecture, Arab History and Culture, and (of course) Egyptology 3 (



There exist a number of viable options for acquiring Arabic as a language in Egypt (other than picking it up from the locals):

  • the Arabic Language Institute 4 (, a branch of AUC, offers intensive courses at a variety of levels.
  • Unfortunately the British Council 5 ( in Cairo no longer offers Arabic courses. The Arabic teachers who worked there have set up a school of their own called Kalimat 6 ( in MohandiseenMohandiseen. Modern Standard Arabic and Egyptian Colloquial Arabic are both offered at various levels.



Stay safe

Egypt is generally a safe and friendly country in which to travel. Egyptians on the whole are very friendly - if you are in need of assistance they will generally try to help you as much as they are able.

As in most countries associated with large numbers of overseas travellers, recently there have been security concerns for Western and Israeli travellers. Tourists from these areas have been targeted sporadically by extremist and terrorist groups, sometimes with tragic results.

The usual warnings for prudent behaviour apply, precisely as they would in New York or London: Try to avoid travelling together with large groups of foreigners, be suspicious of and report unattended packages...

The security situation in Egypt (as in many Middle Eastern countries) is frequently exaggerated by Western media outlets, creating a negative impression that is somewhat amplified by the heavy-handed policies of Egyptian authorities in keeping tourists safe. The reality is that travelling in Egypt is probably no more hazardous, with regard to terrorism, than visiting most Western capitals (and probably a lot safer!) Egypt relies heavily on foreign tourism for its national income and both Egyptians and their government are extremely keen to prevent any occurrence that might create a bad impression and keep tourists away.


Stay healthy



Ensure that you drink plenty of water: Egypt has an extremely dry climate most of the year - a fact aggravated by high temperatures in the summer end of the year - and countless travellers each year experience the discomforts and dangers of dehydration. A sense of thirst is not enough to indicate danger - carry a water bottle and keep drinking! Not needing to urinate for a long period or passing very small amounts of dark yellow urine are signs of incipient dehydration.

Egyptian tap water is generally safe, although it does sometimes have an odd taste due to the high chlorine content added to make it so.... It is not recommended for regular drinking, especially to very local differences in quality. Bottled mineral waters are widely available - the local brands, such as Baraka and Siwa, are just as good as expensive imported options. Beware of the old scam, however, whereby vendors re-sell bottled water bottles, having refilled with another (perhaps dubious) source.... Always check the seal is unbroken before parting with your money (or drinking from it) and inform the tourist police if you catch anyone doing this....

Be a little wary with fruit juice, as some sellers may mix it with water. Milk should also be treated carefully as it may not be pasteurised.... Try only to buy milk from reputable shops. Hot beverages like tea and coffee should generally be OK, the water having been boiled in preparation.



Wear sunscreen, wear a hat and bring good sunglasses - it's bright out there!

In order to avoid contracting the rightly dreaded schistosomiasis ( parasite (also known as bilharzia), DO NOT swim in the Nile or venture into any other Egyptian waterways (even if the locals are doing so.....) It is also a good idea not to walk in bare feet on freshly-watered lawns for the same reason. Seek medical attention immediately if you think you may have been exposed to the parasite - DO NOT wait until returning to your own country!



Keep in mind that some Egyptians expect tips after performing a service (baksheesh in Arabic).

If you're male, don't be surprised if another male holds your hand or forearm -- there's no taboo against men holding hands and unlike in the West, this behavior is NOT associated with being gay.



Egypt has a reasonably modern telephone service including a mobile service. Principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta.

There are a number of internet providers. Most tourist towns, such as Cairo and Luxor, boast a plethora of small internet cafés - you won't need to look far!





There are a number of options for washing clothes whilst travelling in Egypt:

By far the easiest, most practical - and not at all expensive - is to arrange for your hotel to have your washing done for you. By prior arrangement, clothes left on the bed or handed in at reception will be returned to you by evening freshly laundered and pressed.

Determined self-helpers can persist with hand-washing or finding one of the many "hole-in-the-wall" laundries where the staff will wash and press your clothes manually - a fascinating process in itself!

Cairo possesses a few basic Western-style laundromats in areas where foreigners and tourists reside - they are virtually nonexistent elsewhere in the country. Some hotels in tourist towns like Luxor and Dahab offer a washing machine service in a back room - the machines are usually primitive affairs and you'll be left with the task of wringing and ironing your clothes yourself.

The moral of the tale?: Do yourself a favour, maximise your quality time in Egypt, and get the hotel to do your laundry for you!!


External Links

  • Egyptian  ( - Unofficial site with downloadable timetables, maps and information on the egyptian railway system.

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